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三大利好政策引领2016年发展 木门企业准备好了吗?

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 贵州培育石材力争2020年产值突破1000亿 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

智能家居缺乏统一标准成发展瓶颈

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

飞速变化的效应
Will China's stock market climb back to the 6,000-point mark it reached two years ago? The stock market was at its most bullish back then, but if you ask the same question now, some would cite a global economy still reeling from a recession.
这份工作排名的依据分别是:收入、职业前景、工作环境、工作压力和体能需求等,大部分数据来自美国劳工部统计局。
vt. 增添活力,鼓舞,激励
会,即便真实的GDP增速未超过这个数字。关于中国真正的(相对官方数据而言)GDP增长率的猜测,已经衍生出一个由相关经济学专家组成的作坊式行业。官方数据看似稳定而美好——有人怀疑中国有关部门对数据进行了“美化”,调整了一些数字、使其符合增长目标。因此,即使2018年中国的增长磕磕绊绊,官方的增速也几乎肯定会高于预定的6.5%。
1. Bottoms Up Beer System
The night's biggest winners may have been hosts Ms. Fey and Ms. Poehler, whose second time hosting the Hollywood Foreign Press Association's Beverly Hills, Calif., ceremony was just as successful as last year's show (a six-year ratings high with 19.7 million viewers).

Central China's Hubei province surpassed Hebei province for the first time to rank 7th with 3.2 trillion yuan, up 8.1 percent.
adamant
在假日旅行最佳航空公司的排行榜上,夏威夷航空公司(Hawaiian Airlines)遥遥领先,紧随其后的是另一家主要经营太平洋海岸业务的阿拉斯加航空公司(Hawaiian Airlines)。相反,根据FlightAware的数据显示,假日旅行期间最差的航空公司是总部位于纽约的捷蓝航空公司(JetBlue Airways),经营区域航线的快捷航空(ExpressJet)排名倒数第二。
这是智慧的时代,也是愚蠢的时代……
在10月份的第三场总统大选辩论中,两位总统候选人没教养地拒绝与对方握手问好或道别。

Footnotes

  • 节能减排 发改委再出重拳
  • 吉尔莫?德尔?托罗是讲故事的大师,今年他执导的《水形物语》又是一部带给观众的现实童话。故事背景设置在1962冷战时期的美国。埃莉萨(莎莉?霍金斯饰)在一个政府名下的实验室工作,那里戒备森严,她常常深陷孤独,感觉受困于隔绝人群的生活。然而,埃莉萨和同事塞尔达(奥克塔维亚?斯宾塞饰)发现了实验室里一个机密实验,此后她的生活就被彻底改变了。

According to figures from Zhonggong Education, an institute that monitors the applicant numbers, more than 459,600 people applied to take the exam by the sixth day of this year's application window on Tuesday. Almost 103,000 of those had applied on Monday.
Coca-Cola CEO Muhtar Kent
Despite our global economy, only 20 percent of Americans speak another language. Sixty Vocab is aiming to change that with it’s online foreign language game. Based on the premise that 2000 words equals 60 percent of a foreign language, Sixty Vocab is aiming to make learning essential vocabulary fun. The games teach the words most commonly used in conversation and applies time-based discipline — the faster you guess the word, the more rapidly you move on to the next one. Bridging the gap between your high school classes and a pricey foreign language program, Sixty Vocab is offering a unique option for those who want to learn a foreign language during their morning coffee or commute.
我经常心情不好
台风哈维
"Our data show that the user gave her age as 28, not 13, as reported in the media," the employee said.

内斗致万州基地停产 雷士照明欲扩惠州基地产能

References

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